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Interesting Studies: Probably low carb related in one way or another

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  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Kevind Hall Re: Vegan/Greger video
    Keto Diet Results for Weight Loss
    Ketogenic diets and the $33-billion diet gimmick
    I have some thoughts on a recent video posted at http://NutritionFacts.org by @nutrition_facts called “Keto Diet Results for Weight Loss” that relied heavily on our research to criticize ketogenic diets.

    The video cites our 2015 Cell_Metabolism paper that didn’t investigate a keto diet. We even refused to call the diet “low carb” because the calorie restriction achieved by selectively cutting carbs resulted in a diet ~30% of total calories from carbs.

    Our study was NOT an efficacy study as portrayed in the nutrition_facts video. Rather, it was designed to nvestigate the physiology of selective restriction of carbs vs fat &the effects on insulin secretion and body fat. The body fat differences were clinically meaningless!

    Similarly meaningless body fat differences were found in our cited meta-analysis investigating *controlled feeding studies* employing isocaloric manipulations of diet carbs:fat while keeping protein constant.

    Plenty of randomized diet trials *that did not control food intake* have shown that lower fat diets result in similarly disappointing long-term weight and body fat loss vs lower carb diets. If anything, there’s a slight benefit of lower carb diets.

    While diet differences often dissipate over the long term, early on people randomly assigned to low carb diets seem to be able to cut more calories and lose more weight than those assigned to a low fat diet.

    That’s why we our latest research has turned to studying ad libitum food intake in diets varying widely in carbs:fat whereas our past studies focused on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and body fat differences during isocaloric controlled feeding.

    Besides body weight and fat loss, low carb diets likely have other advantages compared to high carb diets when it comes to glycemic control and insulin secretion as we recently reviewed. Kevin Hall

    References:
    https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26278052
    https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28193517
    https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26527510
    https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30672127
    https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03878108
    https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29677013
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    A Ketogenic Diet Is Acceptable in Women with Ovarian and Endometrial Cancer and Has No Adverse Effects on Blood Lipids: a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    At 12 weeks, there were no significant differences between diet groups in blood lipids, after adjusting for baseline values and weight loss. Adherence among KD subjects ranged from 57% to 80%. These findings suggest that KDs may be a safe and achievable component of treatment for some cancer patients.

    Source | Via
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Feasibility, Safety, and Beneficial Effects of MCT-Based Ketogenic Diet for Breast Cancer Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial Study

    Overall survival was higher in KD group compared to the control group in neoadjuvant patients (P = 0.04).

    Source | Via
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Is a vegetarian diet safe to follow during pregnancy? A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Answer - we don't know.

    Source | Via
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Some cooling off already? Surprised to see this.
    Tim Hortons to pull Beyond Meat offerings everywhere except Ontario and B.C.

    "While restaurant chains across North America are jumping on the plant-based meat alternative craze, Tim Hortons appears to be taking a step back.

    The Canadian coffee and doughnut chain confirmed Wednesday that it will be pulling the Beyond Meat Burger and Beyond Meat breakfast sandwiches from its menus in all provinces except Ontario and British Columbia."


    Article
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Pregnant women who suffer from anaemia in the first 30 weeks 'are more likely to have children with autism and ADHD'
    Association of Prenatal Maternal Anemia With Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    The findings suggest that maternal anemia occurring during early pregnancy is associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and in particular, intellectual disability, emphasizing the importance of early screening for iron status and nutritional counseling in antenatal care.

    Source | Media | Via
  • LINIALINIA Posts: 1,018Member, Premium Member Posts: 1,018Member, Premium Member
    Re:Tim Horton’s - may possibly have to do with sales and low demand???
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    I'm sure it's sales related -- if it wasn't they would have pulled them Ontario and British Columbia as well. The demand might be less in the rest of the country because of a demographic thing (more rural communities less inclined to jump on the plant based bandwagon) or maybe it's a price thing? Either or right now it must not be profitable for them in those stores.

    Burger King in the US is very happy with having the burgers on their menus -- it's driving higher beef sales and accustoming consumers to higher prices. (from last week)
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    More plant based news... this is becoming a running theme but I'm happy to see it. People need to be aware that most of what they're reading about plant based food is marketing. Now if they would just stop recommending skim milk...
    Most Young Children Shouldn’t Consume Plant-Based Milk, Health Guidelines Say

    Oat, coconut, almond, rice, and other plant-based milk should not be consumed by children under the age of 5, according to a new set of health guidelines released on Sept. 18.

    Researchers at the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Heart Association produced the guidelines.

    “Plant-based milks are growing in popularity, but it is important to note that they are not nutritionally equivalent to cow’s milk. They have varying nutritional profiles based on their plant source and many often contain added sugars.”


    Media | Source
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    They honestly believe it's healthier and want the best for their kids.

    I made a post here a few months ago that said, "Meat and eggs are both healthful and more nutritious than bread. If you enjoy them eat them -- they're good for you." That racked up 5 or 6 woos I think. Another poster was replacing eggs with Just Egg (vegan product) for health reasons. People seem ignorant to the nutritional value of animal foods. Which makes the plant based and imitation food marketing campaigns more readily accepted.
  • lemurcat2lemurcat2 Posts: 4,932Member Member Posts: 4,932Member Member
    psuLemon wrote: »
    More plant based news... this is becoming a running theme but I'm happy to see it. People need to be aware that most of what they're reading about plant based food is marketing. Now if they would just stop recommending skim milk...
    Most Young Children Shouldn’t Consume Plant-Based Milk, Health Guidelines Say

    Oat, coconut, almond, rice, and other plant-based milk should not be consumed by children under the age of 5, according to a new set of health guidelines released on Sept. 18.

    Researchers at the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Heart Association produced the guidelines.

    “Plant-based milks are growing in popularity, but it is important to note that they are not nutritionally equivalent to cow’s milk. They have varying nutritional profiles based on their plant source and many often contain added sugars.


    Media | Source

    This is what I always hurt my head. People would rather have their kids drink a bunch of added sugar, than have a source of milk that contains healthy fats, protein and has less sugar.

    Many plant-based milks have no sugar. You have to choose the ones with added sugar to have more sugar. I personally think the ones with added sugar or flavoring taste disgusting.

    I make cashew milk at home and it has lots of fat (cashews) and no sugar, but lower protein than dairy so I wouldn't consider it a significant protein source (ironically it's a better fit for keto or low carb than real milk of whatever kind). I also occasionally buy (selectively) coconut and certain nut milks, same, and soy milk which is more similar to dairy in its macros and nutrients (I also buy goats milk, and cow's yogurt and cottage cheese and all kinds of cheese, I just don't care about cow's milk and so it usually goes bad if I buy it). Nut-based milks are a longstanding option dating from the middle ages, not some new thing.

    Re the popularity of non dairy alternatives, worth noting that for most Northern and Western Europeans (or people of such ancestry, as the US was largely until recently), there is no issue with digesting dairy, but for people of other backgrounds (increasingly common among children in the US) lactose intolerance is common and insisting that dairy is the best of all possible drinks is bad advice. My dad's wife (of Korean ancestry) drinks soy milk and has gotten him into it. He claims he thinks he had issues with dairy (which I think is unlikely, but whatever), but no harm IMO, its also no sugar added, and it's not like any kind of dairy was going to be some huge part of his diet (long ago he ditched red meat and all but skim/lowfat dairy and sneer as you like but it fixed his high cholesterol).

    Btw, I don't really like most bread and rarely eat it, including when I got fat, but the idea that it's somehow terrible for you is overstated. I do think eggs and dairy are usually preferable (although its not like they are substitutes), just due to protein (in that there are better fiber sources than whole grain bread). But if someone wants to buy an easy turkey sandwich for lunch it's not like they have the option of (or necessarily want) a turkey omelet. My weird anti bread thing is I like plain (real) turkey more than a sandwich, so I'd rather have it with other sides (which might be cottage cheese, but hardly likely to be eggs). Not really a normal trade off IMO, but I suppose fits the anti carb theme of the thread.
    edited September 2019
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Trends in Dietary Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat Intake and Diet Quality Among US Adults, 1999-2016

    Findings In this nationally representative serial cross-sectional study that included 43 996 adults, there were decreases in low-quality carbohydrates (primarily added sugar) and increases in high-quality carbohydrates (primarily whole grains), plant protein (primarily whole grains and nuts), and polyunsaturated fat. However, 42% of energy intake was still derived from low-quality carbohydrates and the intake of saturated fat remained above 10% of energy.

    Source
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Should dietary guidelines recommend low red meat intake?
    Frédéric Leroy & Nathan Cofnas

    The bald claim that red meat is an “unhealthy food” (Willett et al., 2019) is wildly unsupported.

    Source
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Eat Less Red Meat, Scientists Said. Now Some Believe That Was Bad Advice.

    On Monday, in a remarkable turnabout, an international collaboration of researchers produced a series of analyses concluding that the advice, a bedrock of almost all dietary guidelines, is not backed by good scientific evidence. NY Times

    Unprocessed Red Meat and Processed Meat Consumption: Dietary Guideline Recommendations From the Nutritional Recommendations (NutriRECS) Consortium

    Methods: The recommendations were developed by using the Nutritional Recommendations (NutriRECS) guideline development process, which includes rigorous systematic review methodology, and GRADE methods to rate the certainty of evidence for each outcome and to move from evidence to recommendations. A panel of 14 members, including 3 community members, from 7 countries voted on the final recommendations. Strict criteria limited the conflicts of interest among panel members. Considerations of environmental impact or animal welfare did not bear on the recommendations. Four systematic reviews addressed the health effects associated with red meat and processed meat consumption, and 1 systematic review addressed people's health-related values and preferences regarding meat consumption.

    Recommendations: The panel suggests that adults continue current unprocessed red meat consumption (weak recommendation, low-certainty evidence). Similarly, the panel suggests adults continue current processed meat consumption (weak recommendation, low-certainty evidence).

    Primary Funding Source: None.


    Source | Critique by Cristopher Gardner (vegetarian, researcher).

    More media:
    No Need To Cut Back On Red Meat? Controversial New 'Guidelines' Lead To Outrage NPR
    Is red meat back on the menu? BBC
    edited October 2019
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Many of our devout beliefs about nutrition are getting totally debunked
    Heather Tirado Gilligan, Slate

    Nutritionist Marion Nestle and other progressive reformers called foul, denouncing the change. “Really?” Nestle scoffed. “I have a hard time believing that WIC recipients are suffering from lack of potatoes in their diets.”

    ...

    He [Willett] placed potatoes in the same naughty group as candy in his influential 2005 book Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy: The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating. One of his studies concluded that white potatoes are worse than soda, leading the L.A. Times to dub spuds public enemy No. 1 in 2011.

    ...

    But did science really lose? In this case, the potato industry had science on its side, the outcry from nutritionists notwithstanding. Despite the common belief that potatoes are nutritionally null, a report released in February by the Institute of Medicine, an independent nonprofit, shows that white potatoes are an inexpensive source of potassium, fiber, and other needed nutrients, and one that people actually enjoy eating.

    The takeaway from the potato controversy is not that lobbyists sometimes base their campaigns on real science. Rather it’s that the David-and-Goliath narrative of science versus Big Ag may be blinding us to another, even bigger problem: the fact that there is often very little solid science backing recommendations about what we eat.

    Article
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Keeping Your Blood Sugar In Check Could Lower Your Alzheimer's Risk

    "There's many reasons to get [blood sugar] under control," says David Holtzman, chairman of neurology at Washington University in St. Louis. "But this is certainly one."

    Holtzman moderated a panel Sunday at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in Chicago that featured new research exploring the links between Alzheimer's and diabetes.

    "The risk for dementia is elevated about twofold in people who have diabetes or metabolic syndrome (a group of risk factors that often precedes diabetes)," Holtzman says. "But what's not been clear is, what's the connection?"

    One possibility involves the way the brain metabolizes sugar, says Liqin Zhao, an associate professor in the school of pharmacy at the University of Kansas.


    Media
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    The challenge of keeping it off, a descriptive systematic review of high‐quality, follow‐up studies of obesity treatments

    This review concludes that the majority of high‐quality follow‐up treatment studies of individuals with obesity are not successful in maintaining weight loss over time. The results suggest that excess weight can be lost but is likely regained over time, for the majority of participants.

    Summary
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    The role of long chain fatty acids in regulating food intake and cholecystokinin release in humans

    RESULTS Intraduodenal fat perfusion significantly (p<0.05) reduced calorie intake. Inhibition of fat hydrolysis abolished this effect. Only long chain fatty acids significantly (p<0.05) decreased calorie intake, whereas medium chain fatty acids were ineffective. Infusion of loxiglumide abolished the effect of long chain fatty acids.

    Source | Via
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    "Blood fatty acid biomarkers of de novo liver fat synthesis - e.g., driven by refined starch, sugar - linked to higher all-cause mortality. Turning on excess liver fat production may be the earliest common path of insulin resistance and diabetes." --Dariush Mozaffarian

    Re: Serial Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids in the De Novo Lipogenesis Pathway and Total Mortality, Cause‐Specific Mortality, and Cardiovascular Diseases in the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Source
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