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Interesting Studies: Probably low carb related in one way or another

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  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Re: New Evaluation of Isoflavone Exposure in the French Population

    Levels of phytoestrogen from #soy now reaching worrying levels in the French population.
    Expected to lengthen menstrual cycles, acts as endocrine-disruptors, & display toxic effects on reproduction & on mammary and pituitary carcinoma.

    Source
    | Via

    Related:
    Removing isoflavones from modern soyfood: Why and how? Source | Via
    Dear men: There’s no evidence that eating Impossible Whoppers will give you breasts Media
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Re: Katz, Willett, and Hu disgrace themselves once again

    Backlash Over Meat Dietary Recommendations Raises Questions About Corporate Ties to Nutrition Scientists

    The True Health Initiative (THI) is a nonprofit founded and headed by David Katz, MD. The group’s website describes its work as “fighting fake facts and combating false doubts to create a world free of preventable diseases, using the time-honored, evidence-based, fundamentals of lifestyle and medicine.” Walter Willett, MD, DrPH, and Frank Hu, MD, PhD, Harvard nutrition researchers who are among the top names in their field, serve on the THI council of directors.

    Katz, Willett, and Hu took the rare step of contacting Laine about retracting the studies prior to their publication, she recalled in an interview with JAMA. Perhaps that’s not surprising. “Some of the researchers have built their careers on nutrition epidemiology,” Laine said. “I can understand it’s upsetting when the limitations of your work are uncovered and discussed in the open.”

    Subsequent news coverage criticized the methodology used in the meat papers and raised the specter that some of the authors had financial ties to the beef industry, representing previously undisclosed conflicts of interest.

    But what has for the most part been overlooked is that Katz and THI and many of its council members have numerous industry ties themselves. The difference is that their ties are primarily with companies and organizations that stand to profit if people eat less red meat and a more plant-based diet. Unlike the beef industry, these entities are surrounded by an aura of health and wellness, although that isn’t necessarily evidence-based.


    Full Article

    Related: Siephan Guyenet cuts ties with the group

    "I was very disappointed to read this article describing attempts by the True Health Initiative to suppress the series of meta-analyses on red meat that was recently published in Annals of Internal Medicine. As a result of this, I've cut my ties with THI.

    This isn't about whose opinions on red meat are right or wrong. It's about the integrity of the scientific method. I hope THI can find a better path forward."
    -Stephan Guyenet, PhD
    Reference:
    Eat Less Red Meat, Scientists Said. Now Some Believe That Was Bad Advice.

    On Monday, in a remarkable turnabout, an international collaboration of researchers produced a series of analyses concluding that the advice, a bedrock of almost all dietary guidelines, is not backed by good scientific evidence. NY Times

    Unprocessed Red Meat and Processed Meat Consumption: Dietary Guideline Recommendations From the Nutritional Recommendations (NutriRECS) Consortium

    Methods: The recommendations were developed by using the Nutritional Recommendations (NutriRECS) guideline development process, which includes rigorous systematic review methodology, and GRADE methods to rate the certainty of evidence for each outcome and to move from evidence to recommendations. A panel of 14 members, including 3 community members, from 7 countries voted on the final recommendations. Strict criteria limited the conflicts of interest among panel members. Considerations of environmental impact or animal welfare did not bear on the recommendations. Four systematic reviews addressed the health effects associated with red meat and processed meat consumption, and 1 systematic review addressed people's health-related values and preferences regarding meat consumption.

    Recommendations: The panel suggests that adults continue current unprocessed red meat consumption (weak recommendation, low-certainty evidence). Similarly, the panel suggests adults continue current processed meat consumption (weak recommendation, low-certainty evidence).

    Primary Funding Source: None.


    Source | Critique by Cristopher Gardner (vegetarian, researcher).

    More media:
    No Need To Cut Back On Red Meat? Controversial New 'Guidelines' Lead To Outrage NPR
    Is red meat back on the menu? BBC

  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Don't drink sugar.

    Fructose and hepatic insulin resistance

    In this review, we present the data invoking fructose intake with development of hepatic insulin resistance in human studies and discuss the pathways by which fructose impairs hepatic insulin action in experimental animal models. First, we described well-characterized pathways by which fructose metabolism indirectly leads to hepatic insulin resistance. These include unequivocal effects of fructose to promote de novo lipogenesis (DNL), impair fatty acid oxidation (FAO), induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and trigger hepatic inflammation.

    In summary, dietary fructose intake strongly promotes hepatic insulin resistance via complex interplay of several metabolic pathways, at least some of which are independent of increased weight gain and caloric intake. The current evidence shows that the fructose, but not glucose, component of dietary sugar drives metabolic complications and contradicts the notion that fructose is merely a source of palatable calories that leads to increased weight gain and insulin resistance.


    Full Review | Via
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    This is becoming a thing. Here's another study with improved kidney function.

    Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet: A Safe and Effective Tool for Weight Loss in Patients With Obesity and Mild Kidney Failure.

    A prospective observational real-life study was conducted on ninety-two patients following a VLCKD for approximately 3 months. Thirty-eight had mild kidney failure and fifty-four had no renal condition and were therefore designated as control. Anthropometric parameters, bioelectrical impedance and biochemistry data were collected before and at the end of the dietary intervention. The average weight loss was nearly 20% of initial weight, with a significant reduction in fat mass. We report an improvement of metabolic parameters and no clinically relevant variation regarding liver and kidney function. Upon stratification based on kidney function, no differences in the efficacy and safety outcomes were found. Interestingly, 27.7% of patients with mild renal failure reported normalization of glomerular filtrate after dietary intervention.

    Source
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Pretty sure there's been some association with increased mortality and salt restriction so this tweet caught my eye. "Salt restriction worsened death and #heartfailure rehospitalization in HF patients @pacificheart by Dr. Richard Wright."

    Supporting science is thin at best right now I think--IDK? Some links in the thread if anyone is curious.
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Inuit metabolism revisited: what drove the selective sweep of CPT1a L479?

    Recent hypotheses predict that this variant may have been selected in response to possible detrimental effects of chronic ketosis in communities with very low carbohydrate consumption. Assessing these hypotheses alongside several alternative explanations of the selective sweep, this analytical review challenges the notion that the selection of L479 is linked to predicted detrimental effects of ketosis.

    Source | Via

    Related:
    edited February 12
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Baby-formula sales are slumping, so the companies that make it have turned to supplements for 3-year-olds.

    as infant-formula sales have slumped in recent years, baby-formula companies are starting to see toddler milk as their next move as well.

    Toddler milk is the fastest-growing category of breast-milk substitutes, according to the World Health Organization, and is now available at grocery stores and on websites such as Amazon. But child-nutrition experts say this type of milk is expensive, unnecessary, and possibly even unhealthy. Although toddler milk can cost four times the price of cow’s milk, the drink consists mainly of powdered milk, corn syrup, and vegetable oil.


    Re: US toddler milk sales and associations with marketing practices

    Media | Source | Via
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    To treat or not to treat Alzheimer's disease by the ketogenic diet? That is the question.

    Several pilot studies in patients with AD have shown that supplementation with ketogenic diet improves cognitive function, verbal memory, mood, affect, self-care, daily activities, visual attention and working memory (Taylor et al., 2017; Ota et al., 2019; Rusek et al., 2019).

    ...

    There is no doubt that due to comprehensive data from preclinical studies, along with the first results of individual patients or small cohorts (Rusek et al., 2019), the next task must be to test ketogenic diet in well-designed clinical trials. However, the biggest challenge will be finding sponsors for clinical trials on ketogenic diet as this promising diet cannot be exploited economically. Further double-blind investigations are needed to clarify the effectiveness of taking the ketogenic diet.


    Source
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Important roles of dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline in human nutrition and health

    The present review provides the public with the much-needed knowledge of nutritionally and physiologically significant amino acids, dipeptides and creatine in animal-source foods (including beef).

    This work was supported by a grant from the National Cattlemen's Beef Association.

    Souce
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Leading Scientists Agree: Current Limits on Saturated Fats No Longer Justified

    “There is no strong scientific evidence that the current population-wide upper limits on commonly consumed saturated fats in the U.S. will prevent cardiovascular disease or reduce mortality. A continued limit on these fats is therefore not justified.”

    These leading researchers in the field also concluded that:
    • Numerous recent meta-analyses of both controlled randomized trials and observational studies have found no significant evidence for effects of saturated fat consumption on cardiovascular or total mortality. Furthermore, there is evidence that saturated-fat intake may be associated with a lower risk of experiencing a stroke.
    • Recommendations to lower saturated fat consumption have been based primarily on the evidence that this will lower LDL, the type of cholesterol in the blood that has been linked to heart disease risk. However, it is now known that there is more than one type of LDL, and that in the majority of individuals, reducing dietary saturated fat does not lower the type (small dense LDL) that is most strongly associated with heart-disease risk. This may help to explain why lowering saturated fat intake in trials has not been found to reduce cardiovascular mortality.
    Press Release | Via
    Researchers:
    Arne Astrup, MD, DMSc, Co-Chair
    Ronald M. Krauss, MD, Co-Chair
    Andrew Mente, MSc, PhD
    Janet King, PhD
    J. Thomas Brenna, PhD
    Jose M Ordovas,PhD
    Marcia C. de Oliveira Otto, M.S. PhD
    Jeff Volek, PhD, RD
    James O. Hill, PhD
    Salim Yusuf, DPhil, FRCPC, FRSC, O.C. ‘

    Source
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Reduced Glucose Tolerance and Skeletal Muscle GLUT4 and IRS1 Content in Cyclists Habituated to a Long-Term Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet.

    We conclude that well-trained cyclists habituated to an LCHF diet had reduced glucose tolerance compared with matched controls on a mixed diet. Lower skeletal muscle GLUT4 and IRS1 contents may partially explain this finding. This could possibly reflect an adaptation to reduced habitual glucose availability rather than the development of a pathological insulin resistance.

    Source
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Dietary saturated fat intake and risk of stroke: Systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    •Higher dietary saturated fat intake is associated with a decreased overall risk of stroke.
    •There is a linear dose–response relation between dietary saturated fat intake and the risk of stroke.
    •It is necessary to re-evaluate the restrictions on saturated fat intake for future dietary guidelines.


    Source
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Effects of a ketogenic diet in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    RESULTS:

    After 12 weeks, anthropometric and body composition measurements revealed a significant reduction of body weight (- 9.43 kg), BMI (- 3.35), FBM (8.29 kg) and VAT. There was a significant, slightly decrease of LBM. A significant decrease in glucose and insulin blood levels were observed, together with a significant improvement of HOMA-IR. A significant decrease of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL were observed along with a rise in HDL levels. The LH/FSH ratio, LH total and free testosterone, and DHEAS blood levels were also significantly reduced. Estradiol, progesterone and SHBG increased. The Ferriman Gallwey Score was slightly, although not significantly, reduced.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Our results suggest that a KD may be considered as a valuable non pharmacological treatment for PCOS. Longer treatment periods should be tested to verify the effect of a KD on the dermatological aspects of PCOS.

    Source | Via
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    A Randomized Controlled Trial of a 6-month low carbohydrate intervention on disease progression in men with recurrent prostate cancer: Carbohydrate and Prostate Study 2 (CAPS2)

    Both weight loss and low carbohydrate diets (LCD) without weight loss prolong survival in prostate cancer (PC) models. Few human trials tested weight loss or LCD on PC.
    ...
    Conclusions: Among BCR patients, LCD induced weight loss and metabolic benefits with acceptable safety without affecting PSADT suggesting LCD does not adversely affect PC growth and is safe. Given exploratory findings of longer PSADT, larger studies testing LCD on disease progression are warranted.


    Source | Via
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Keto heart attack anecdote: "Someone I know (female, 37yrs) who is on keto and exercising hard to lose weight had a heart attack (she's ok!! In hospital recovering) And people are jumping to point the finger at keto for causing it - should I be worried at all?"

    Exceedingly rare to read anything like this but worth posting--electrolyte imbalances are serious business.
  • AlabasterVerveAlabasterVerve Posts: 3,171Member Member Posts: 3,171Member Member
    Re: Katz again.

    "But as many pointed out, Katz is not an epidemiologist. Instead, he specializes in nutrition advice, and has published a number of dietary books, including The Way to Eat, Cut Your Cholesterol and Stealth Health.

    Katz’s piece was shared widely among conservatives, including by Fox News host and informal Trump adviser Pete Hegseth. The article served as a handy tool for conservatives advancing the argument that the economy shouldn’t be sacrificed for coronavirus containment.

    A group of Yale epidemiologists swiftly wrote a letter to the Times, rebutting Katz’s piece. Others pointed out Katz’s lack of credentials and his links to big industry. He was once paid $3,500 an hour as an expert witness in a Chobani legal case to defend the sugar contained in its yoghurts.

    Katz has received hundreds of thousands of dollars from companies including Hershey’s, Kind Bars, the walnut industry and Quaker Oats. The science journalist Nina Teicholz has written about how in some cases, Katz wrote positive articles about those companies after receiving grants.

    “Dr Katz’s efforts on behalf of public health during this pandemic are uncompensated and born from a sense of duty and commitment to public health,” a spokeswoman for Katz told the Guardian. She pointed to a post Katz wrote on LinkedIn following the criticism, where he stresses how damage to the economy is also a massive public health issue.

    Yale itself went to lengths to distance itself from Katz. “David Katz is not academically affiliated with Yale and has not held an academic appointment here since 2016,” the university posted on Twitter."


    Media
  • T1DCarnivoreRunnerT1DCarnivoreRunner Posts: 10,214Member Member Posts: 10,214Member Member
    Highly relevant these days... When you have to be put on a ventilator, will you be able to get off the ventilator sooner on a high carb or a high fat diet in your feeding tube?

    Study says:
    The high fat group spent a mean of 62 h less time on the ventilator (p = 0.006). A high fat, low carbohydrate enteral feed appears to be beneficial in patients undergoing artificial ventilation.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2504796?fbclid=IwAR3PJFWy3ohbUpPj7AH4yjKwdTWzXPJt060a-qvfZA5pS0KwgpvqO8TmbcY
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